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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

Morocco is a gateway to Africa. Major tourism cities in the North African kingdom include the capital of Rabat, Casablanca – the country's largest city - Marrakesh and Agadir.

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住房市场在去年年初表现抢眼,但到年末时则受到不断加重的担忧情绪困扰,这其中包括利率上升、供给制约、信贷收紧及一系列其他问题。
A型与B型人格理论指出,A型人格的人外向、野心勃勃、严谨、地位意识强、敏感、不耐烦、焦虑、积极主动和注重时间管理。
2016年奥运会和2014年足球世界杯主办城市里约打败了希腊,成为搜索次数最多的旅游目的地。

……声称自己之所以迟到是因为迷路了,但我们的接待员却说她刚刚看到这位求职者在咖啡店里玩。
We learned that there is new hope for Africans with treatable cancers.
Julian Evans-Pritchard, China economist at Capital Economics, commented:

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

英媒:中国空置房过剩 面积接近新加坡国土

在销量方面,通用和福特的部分市场份额被克莱斯勒蚕食,后者已经把Jeep品牌成功提升到此前难以想象的高度。随后,克莱斯勒将它的光辉历史抛在身后,将总部搬到荷兰,并更名为FCA US LLC。
单词document 联想记忆:
《老友记》大部分剧集拍摄之时,手机和Google都还未普及,剧中的服装和道具现在看来也有些过时,但是,剧中的主题却依旧深得现在年轻观众的心。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

宏伟壮丽的教堂、随处可见的博物馆、日益丰富的现代艺术以及伴随夏季节日到来而热情洋溢的大街小巷等,该城市总能带给你意想不到的惊喜和兴奋。
['depjuti]
恭祝新年吉祥,幸福和欢乐与你同在。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • [pr?s'periti]
  • 松下主攻欧洲LED照明市场 到2018年扩至360亿日元
  • The nearest star, Proxima Centauri, has a planet orbiting it not much bigger than Earth. Its "year" is only 11 days. But it's in the habitable zone because Proxima Centauri is a red dwarf star about 100 times fainter than the sun. And there's hot news that a similar star, 40 light years away, may have three planets in its habitable zone.
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  • [?'θ?:riti]
    n. 笔画,击打,一笔(画)连续的动作,中风,

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 中国青年住房拥有率达7成 专家质疑数据注水, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

首付门槛太高购房者转投二手 5月广州一手成交遇冷

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

北京二手房成交创新高 价格回归今年年初的水平

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 其中一个球迷站在女孩对面的球迷俯下身来想和女孩索吻,此时女孩正与她的朋友用法语交谈时,男子假装很囧地和旁边一个朋友来了一个拥抱。
    你一定有一个连走路时都念念不忘的怪癖。你只想聊这个。瞧着吧,观众会被你帅到的。
  • The retail side, she says, “is nascent and a mixed bag”. All countries in the region have a lot of work to do, she says, adding the Australian example has proven that regulatory changes can make a significant difference to generating pockets of interest.
    The U.S. Congress and the media will go berserk when Goldman announces the size of its 2009 bonus pool. But the outrage will be brief and of little lasting consequence. The 'hate Goldman Sachs' story has been running just too long.
    With both the S&P 500 and Nasdaq returning over 14% while the Dow and MidCap 400 each kicking in close to 10%, you would assume that passive investors would have an awful lot to celebrate this year. And indeed, they would have, if it weren’t for those pesky overseas stocks that did nothing but drag on the performance of any diversified portfolio.
    当大脑没有得到充分休眠时,它确实就开始自噬了。在我们睡觉的时候,“清除”程序通常就会启动,但长期缺乏睡眠会使该程序处于高速运转状态,促使大脑清除大量神经元连接和突触连接。
    4=是

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 发改委:房地产未现危机 2015年将稳定住房消费
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 网购家具困扰多 7招傍身规避风险

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

影片评价极高,演技也大获好评,尤其是故事的主人公——那些孩子们,以及汽车旅馆经理的扮演者威廉?达福。
3. Smart laundry peg
Magic show (Lu Chen)
There exists no such thing as the people; this is an imaginary entity.
This is not to take anything away from Tesla, which has demonstrated that it can create and manufacture a complex and sophisticated product with demonstrated customer appeal. But its own internal forecasts, as well as the swelling of its share price, are based on the expectation that the future will unspool in an orderly fashion identical to the recent past. That’s a dangerous assumption to make – for several reasons:
她还表示,从较长期来看,另一个让她担心的“R”是“重置”(reset),她解释称,全球各地的货币和财政政策在回归正常之前还有很长的路要走。她补充称:“最终的重置是那些在全球各地都有必要实施的结构性改革。”
我们总会不断地去思考着NBA一个赛季接着一个赛季的时间流逝,原因也很明显。在流逝的过程中,每一项事物都是有联系的,整个过程就是一个连续体。这就是我们记住在一个赛季当中所发生事情的方式。当我们翻看日历,从1月1日到12月31日,回顾一下我们在这个过程中学到了什么,对我们来说是很有好处的。而且,很多人说NBA赛季的“非正式开端”是圣诞节,也正是因为新年很快就要开始了。下面是我们在2017年里所学到的关于nba的经验教训。

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

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  • 上市房企半年卖房收入7740亿元 对楼市继续乐观
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    The FT European Business School Ranking 2016 measures the quality and breadth of schools’ postgraduate programmes. It is based on their performance in the five main rankings published by the Financial Times each year: MBA, Executive MBA (EMBA), Masters in Management (MiM) and the two rankings for executive education. Only schools that take part in all five are eligible for a full score.
  • 朝阳政务服务中心延时两小时
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • In P2P lending, borrowers are matched with investors, who are encouraged to put their money into the loans due to higher returns than they could get at state banks.
    For now, D'Aloisio isn't touching the money. 'I'm too young to appreciate the value of it,' he insists. 'I don't have a mortgage, I'm 17. To me, a hundred pounds is a lot. Take that as a benchmark.' Though he's not allowed to comment on Summly's sale price, when pressed he allows that he might one day like to deploy his newfound riches as an angel investor. No one around him seems to think there's a danger that the money will ruin him or that he'll be tempted to spend the rest of his life dissipating on a beach. 'He's pretty well grounded. You wouldn't believe how frugal he is,' says Diane. 'He's got a great engine,' says Lou. 'He won't stop at this.'
  • adj. 最高的,至上的,极度的
    事实是,韩力不是第一个发明电子烟的人。早在1963年,赫尔伯特·吉尔伯特就制造出了世界上第一个可以用来吸入香烟味儿空气的装置。他最初的发明装置,不用燃烧,也不含尼古丁。他后来设计出了一个用电池去加热的模型,他也用了不同味道的水去制造蒸气。他把他的电子烟模型展示给不同的化工、制药以及烟草公司,但是他们都没有理会他的模型。
  • Angola, Zimbabwe and Albania experienced the largest increases across all the countries surveyed. "On a regional basis, by far the largest gains in life evaluations in terms of the prevalence and size of the increases have been in Latin America and the Caribbean, and in Sub-Saharan Africa", the report said. Reduced levels of corruption also contributed to the rise.
    中国国家统计局工业司何平在随后发布的数据解读声明中称,尽管石油和其他投入价格下跌支撑了利润率,但出厂价格的下跌抵消了这些利好影响。
  • Despite the fact that each market rebound ended up as a V-shaped affair, each successive rally was carried out with less and less individual stock participation. Glaring divergences between winners and losers, large caps and small caps, preoccupied the commentariat for most of the spring and summer. Deflationary concerns from Europe and the Japanese technical recession further confounded analysts, as Treasury yields and inflation indicators in the U.S. were driven lower despite the improving domestic economy.
    The worst of 2015
    Since the establishment of Avic 1 and Avic 2 in 1999, which really marked the beginning of China’s push into the commercial aerospace market, there has been no doubt about China’s intent and the direction it wants its industry to take. But the pace at which it would achieve this ambition was less uncertain. Almost 20 years on, things have become much more clear, and there is now little doubt that China is well on its way to succeeding where several other countries have failed in becoming a full-fledged player in the large commercial aircraft manufacturing sector, with the potential to disrupt the long-standing duopoly of Airbus and Boeing.
  • 11月,中国的出口总值增速是预期的2倍多,这增加了中国的贸易顺差。
    reflect反射;沉思+ion→反射;思考
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 房企半年报:时隔三年行业净利率重回两位数 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

莫让三四线城市房地产市场成新风险聚集地

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

双城记:青岛和大连如何打好手中的牌?

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

居民消费结构与方式变革特征

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

黑龙江省:抓好重点企业深化改革 支持推动哈尔滨等市(地)加大混改力度

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 我们坐在这里指点江山,告诉那些球队“你们没指望了,赶紧输球摆烂吧!”这是很容易的,但是我们并不是那些在为球队门票和广告殚精竭虑的家伙们。
  • When faced with competition, they may focus less on winning or losing than their Type A counterparts, and more on enjoying the game regardless of winning or losing.
  • 汪涛:房地产销售现回暖 高库存拖累经济增长

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • The curbs are having an effect. Overall non-financial outbound investment fell 36 per cent in January from a year earlier to Rmb53bn ($7.8bn), the commerce ministry said on Thursday, following a 39 per cent drop in December.
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 到目前为止雷神一直是漫威电影宇宙被遗忘的那个孩子。尽管有些人喜欢肯尼思?布莱纳执导的《雷神》第一部,但主演克里斯?海姆斯沃斯的风头显然被汤姆?希德勒斯顿饰演的自负反派洛基给盖过了。《雷神》第二部被公认为漫威有史以来最糟的电影。所以,为了给这个走下坡路的系列注入新活力,漫威在拍第三部时请来了新西兰喜剧电影导演泰卡瓦蒂蒂,给电影增加一些新西兰人的奇思妙想。这一次雷神要降服的对手是由凯特?布兰切特饰演的死神。雷神也许有锤子,但死神有气派。影片于11月1日在塞尔维亚和匈牙利上映,11月2日在柬埔寨和以色列上映,11月3日在印度和加拿大上映。(资料来源:漫威影业)
    spontaneous
    In contrast, the average unit price of emerging market exports has been falling in year-on-year terms pretty much since mid-2012, hitting a year-on-year decline of 16.4 per cent in February 2016.
  • entertainment

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • IE’s online MBA consistently attracts high-calibre students. Half of IE’s alumni were senior managers when they enrolled, the highest proportion among ranked schools at that stage. Three years after graduation they were earning the highest average salary at $179,000, about $30,000 more than the next highest earners — alumni from Olin Graduate School of Business at Babson College.
  • 德国照明大佬欧司朗 出售69亿灯具业务
  • 他表示:“消费者将需要更多时间回归,这就是为什么我们聚焦于一项我们知道会奏效的方案,专注于价格可承受能力和城市地区的高端(饮料)。”他补充称,他相信,该公司将继续在中国扩大市场份额,同时正为消费者支出再次提速做好准备。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 展望:2016卫浴行业流行趋势
  • Household substance abuse
  • 木门甲醛超标成顽疾 行业标准出台利发展
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

从圆住房梦到房住不炒

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 房子过去20年里缘何暴涨?房价3到4年后将迎拐点
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • “房住不炒”定位没变
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

但是,权先生警告年轻人在欲进行手术时应三思。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

2010 U.S. unemployment rate (average): 10.2%
我经常觉得不开心
By the time of the Asian crisis of 1997-98, he says, the Fed had become more responsive and pulled back from its tightening cycle on concern that the turmoil in Southeast Asia would affect the US economy.
Internet tycoons had heated discussions on the promise of artificial intelligence (AI) following the historic victory earlier this month for Google Inc's AI-powered AlphaGo over South Korean Go master Lee Se-dol.
因此,D型人格的人并不是缺乏社交兴趣,而是可能对别人感兴趣,但又害怕接近别人,因为他们害怕被拒绝。
6.《我爱你,菲利普·莫里斯》
Ben McLannahan is US banking editor
1月份中国居民消费价格指数(CPI)出现上涨,在本月金融市场动荡为主的背景下,该消息对于这个世界第二大经济体来说是个令人鼓舞的迹象。
On the long voyage to World Cup triumph, Belgium and Uruguay are two icebergs that the favorites would rather avoid. Both nations, despite being underdogs in this year's tournament, have the ability and the nous to upset their bigger and brasher rivals. Yet it's remarkable, given their small size and history as geopolitical doormats, that they remain competitive at all.
中国领导人会刺激国有经济。资助更多的扩张性增长项目,比如用以支持城镇化发展的基础建设的投资,包括大量的房屋、学校、公路等方面的建设。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

中山:家居建材企业将可直接到美国开店

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • At least 10 students lost their chance to attend Harvard College after posting "obscene memes" to a private Facebook chat, the main Harvard student newspaper reported.
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • 教育部也已采取了一些措施,例如取消考试成绩、将作弊行为记入个人档案中。
  • 如何看待经济下行压力加大?统计局回应
  • Comic skit “You’ve Got Trouble”(Sun Tao, Qin Hailu etc)
  • 京津冀将现“1小时通勤圈”
  • 陶博宏表示,这可能过于悲观了。他说:“亚洲的情况往往比我们想象的更快变化。”

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • LED照明“大规模定制化” 将突破产业亏损困境
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Though many people associate Porsche with pure performance cars, in recent years the brand has expanded their lineup to include the Panamera, a luxury large car shown here, as well as the Cayenne and Macan SUVs. According to most reviewers, the Panamera not only lives up to the performance heritage of the Porsche’s brand, but also coddles occupants with an opulent interior and the connectivity features today’s luxury buyer demands.
  • 尽管该片被洛杉矶影评人协会评为最佳剪辑奖,但却没有受到纽约影评人的重视。它的势头会逐渐减弱吗?

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

多地加强房地产监管整治市场乱象

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