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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

[.depri'vein]

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Michael Smurfit Graduate Business School at University College Dublin showed the best overall progress, moving up 21 places to 48. Guanghua School of Management at Peking University returns to the ranking at 38, after missing last year due to a low response rate from participants.
It was visible in practically every brand that edged from the 1960s to 1970s for the season currently in stores, including Alberta Ferretti, Pucci and Etro.
The number of inbound travelers to Beijing grew after the city hosted the 2008 Olympics until 2012, when it saw a 3.8% decline, followed by the further drop last year.

你是否一直有一个作家梦,但又不知道从何着手?那么你是否考虑过自助出版呢?感谢亚马逊,这种想法已经成为可能。亚马逊的Kindle Direct Publishing工具可以让你自行制作电子书,CreateSpace能够帮助制作纸质书籍,而ACX则是有声电子书的制作部门。我在出书时曾使用过这三款软件。
The company realised that "it was all a mistake and that he did it without thinking," a Google spokeswoman said last Wednesday.
'With women, he has this sort of patronising carnal attitude with them which is absolutely accurate to the Bond of the books. But then by creating very strong women he is given quite a run for his money and his attitudes are challenged.

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

摆脱家具制造业困局的重点是提高生产力

vt. 妥协处理,危
Ellen DeGeneres:
其实,中国经济增速放缓至8%左右,对中国乃至世界都是一件好事。更具环境可持续性、更加公平的局面,将缓解社会忧虑,而更高的消费将缓解全球贸易紧张。

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

如果陆金所成功完成此轮融资,将可凸显出该行业今年以来增长有多快。该公司刚在4月融资5亿美元,公司估值在当时达到100亿美元。
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与此同时,苹果正在引入昂贵的新组件,包括OLED显示屏,使手机正面成为一个连续屏幕。深度感应摄像头将提供“增强现实”新功能,并允许手机通过人脸识别(而不是指纹)解锁。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • Rank: 5
  • 人社部公布首批拖欠农民工工资“黑名单” 违法企业将被限制招投标
  • 据德国工商总会的统计数据显示,中国于2016年超越美国,首次成为德国的最大贸易市场。
  • 两部委整治环京津地区“大棚房” 所占土地70%是耕地
  • 美的小米联姻首发i青春 共同提速家居智能化
  • It was 8.9% in 2015 and 9.9% in 2014. The expenditure accounted for 2.11% of last year's total GDP, compared with 2.06% in 2015.
    The January-to-November period in the United States this year was the warmest first 11 months of any year on record for the contiguous states. And 2012 will likely surpass 1998 as the warmest year on record for the nation, according to the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 欧司朗宣布召回5.5万存在过热危险的LED日光灯管, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

去杠杆下,孙宏斌“接盘”万达项目底气何在?

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

2015年家具产业已进入成熟期

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 高通:农夫市集走进公司
    Of the 200 nominated companies, 101 are privately-owned, while the rest are State-owned enterprises. The total value of these 200 listed brands has risen by 36 percent year-on-year to reach $696 billion, with the top 10 accounting for 46 percent of the total value.
  • 大卫评价说:“这唱的太棒了,无可挑剔,简直完美。”
    Rents at the top end of the market have fallen 6.4 per cent, more sharply than in any other city except Nairobi, according to Knight Frank, the property company. Last year, just after prices fell in September, Adidas, the sportswear group, leased a 13,000 square foot shop in the city for 22 per cent less than its former occupier, Coach, the accessories brand.
    威廉姆斯指出,据凯投宏观估计,全球经济增长率将从2016年的2.5%上升至今年的2.8%,“新兴世界的大宗商品净出口国的出口额(以美元计算)同比增长应会达到20%左右。”
    自迈克尔?哈内克之后,再没有人像希腊导演欧格斯?兰斯莫斯那样喜欢在电影作品中解剖社会习俗了。两年前,他的电影《龙虾》用其看待社会的辛辣视角完全征服了戛纳电影节。在《龙虾》描述的社会中,如果成年人无法在45天内寻找到一个爱侣,就会变成动物——这也是我们的世界,只是将集体思维和从众性推向了最大的极限。如今他又带着新作《圣鹿之死》回归,这是关于一个外科医生(科林?法瑞尔饰)和他的妻子(妮可?基德曼饰)的家庭惊悚电影。这位妻子也是一个医生,她像朋友一样对待没有父亲的少年马丁。马丁似乎决心暴露这个家庭的秘密,并揭开这对夫妻过去的一段可怕的创伤。这部电影想表达的难道是家庭(也有可能是社会)的平静有时候依赖于共享商定的谎言?不管是不是,准备好接受惊吓吧。该片将于11月9日在丹麦上映,11月16日在俄罗斯上映,11月30在中国香港上映。(A24制片公司)
    日历一页一页地翻到了12月,一些球队是时候考虑垫底的不可避免性了。那么,哪些球队应该开始着手垫底,哪些球队还需要观望,而哪些球队应该放弃这种打算呢。Flanns 和Zillz将会就这一问题展开讨论。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 国家统计局:2017年全国居民消费价格指数同比上涨1.6%
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 北京:违规转租公租房将被联合惩戒

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

['flimzi]
"In the aftermath of recessions, there's always a period of jobless recovery," says John Challenger, CEO of global outplacement firm Challenger Gray & Christmas. "We're certainly not optimistic about seeing much improvement in the unemployment rate in 2010."
7. “The Kindergarten Teacher” In his tough, weird knockout, the Israeli director Nadav Lapid spins the story of a teacher’s obsession with a child poet to create a savage portrait of fanaticism and its costs.
一年一度的《全球贸易保护报告》(Global Trade Protection Report)显示,2015年美国企业发起了43起反倾销案件,以及另外22起旨在征收反补贴税的反补贴调查。美国在这两方面均处于领先位置,超越了分别在2014年和2013年发起最多案件的印度和巴西。
在2010年世界杯中,智利当属最振奋人心的一支队伍,并在最近的温布利比赛中让英格兰队在赛场上四处兜转,不过,如果哥伦比亚队能够融合射手拉达梅尔·法尔考(Radamel Falcao),那么这支队可能会让一两支队伍神伤了。因此,在所有的南美洲球队中,似乎只有厄瓜多尔难以走出小组赛,而其余的所有国家都有能力奋战到后面的阶段。
总部位于广东的房地产开发企业碧桂园集团现年35岁的女继承人杨惠妍以485亿元的身家紧随其后。
Comic skit “You’ve Got Trouble”(Sun Tao, Qin Hailu etc)

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • 单词syndrome 联想记忆:
  • 上半年一线城市房价爆发式上涨 开发商趁势抬价
  • 4. Fiat. Brand love: -7% / Rank: 85
    阿德瑞娜利玛穿上了红色,亚历山大安布罗休惊艳四座,你能想到她刚生完孩子么?
  • 租房分期付款套路多 如何防止被骗
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • 今年8月,来自托雷维耶哈的乔斯·哈维尔创建了一个AdWords账户,这是谷歌旗下的一项点击付费服务。
    While Cousins' volatile personality and high-usage tendencies present challenges, there are numerous justifications for rolling the dice:
  • Judge for yourself.
    Vawter climbed 103 floors of a Chicago skyscraper on his bionic leg, but its designers are still working on improving it. To optimize it for everyday use, they have to make it even thinner and lighter. Its successor (the iLeg Air?) may meet the Army's stated goal for a bionic leg—10,000 steps without recharging.
  • Ronaldo and Messi are the only football players in the top 20, which also features no women.
    Chinese insurers saw their profits implode in the first six months of 2016.
  • Put succinctly, there was no way to describe or explain the crosscurrents of 2014. And I’m not convinced that the benefit of hindsight will make what happened this year any clearer years from now.
    The next big attempt at a global climate agreement will come when negotiators from around the world gather in Paris in December. Political activists on climate change wasted no time Friday in citing the 2014 heat record as proof that strong action was needed.
    和普通女人一样,我也喜欢超短裙和超长裙——它们通常讨人喜欢,易于穿着。毫无疑问,这些裙子穿在梅根(Megan)和她的朋友们身上更是有力地提醒了我们。
  • transportation
    n. 罪犯
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 至少需8个一线城市?专家:难道要更多城市涨房价 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

数据显示经济运行继续保持稳中向好态势

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

甲醛超标难认定,国标成为地热地板“合法”保护伞

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

30户居民已搬离京报馆旧址

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

住建部《建筑木结构阻燃涂料》正式获批

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 这部电影是完全的、纯粹的流行天堂,其中不乏独创性和黑色幽默。动作编排恰到好处。某些画面,观影者忍不住想冲出电影院叫来朋友观看。但你并不敢离开位置,你怕错过这绝妙的片段。
  • 2100万人口的北京在2015年总消费达到了1.86万亿元,同比增长8.7%。仅消费一项就占据了城市70%的GDP增长。
  • 央行:去年个人房贷增速明显回落

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • 现在,我们来预测一下社交媒体领域在2014年将发生哪些事情。Snapchat会火起来吗?哪些烦人的“推广消息”(Promoted Tweets)会不会持续不断地入侵你的Twitter信息流?你的老板是否将终于学会如何使用Twitter?这五大趋势有望撼动社交网络世界,以及我们在2014年使用社交媒体的方式:
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • 创业者都是行动者和颠覆者。他们不能去分析每一个细节,否则他们将寸步难行。初创公司没有拖延的资本。创业是一个全天候、无休假的职业,创业者必须具备持久不变的前进动力。迈出每一步的时候进行简单的评估,然后继续前进。相信自己的直觉。
    我打赌短期内这些力量——以及美国的首席执行官们——将继续缓和总统在贸易上的火气。不过眼下华盛顿有很多人叫嚣着要在贸易上惩罚中国。
    BrandZ表示,中国科技集团华为(Huawei)已从苹果(Apple)和三星(Samsung)手中夺取市场份额。
  • 在《醉乡民谣》(Inside Llewyn Davis)中,编剧兼导演乔尔?科恩(Joel Coen)和伊桑?科恩(Ethan Coen)兄弟俩挥之不去的忧伤情绪转化成了令人难忘的戏剧性场面。我觉得我的评论本应澄清,这部关于流行文化牺牲品的悲歌有一种特别的味道;其中一些部分相当阴郁。奥斯卡?伊萨克(Oscar Isaac)在片中出演一位自暴自弃的民谣乐手,宿命般地献身于他的艺术,他的卓越表演令这部影片极其震撼人心。

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • 该调查讨论了对未来的预测:"生活成本总是变化的,来年将发生的变化已经有了迹象。"
  • 数量猛增 重庆民宿陷入“围城困局”
  • 至少在城市大部分人能去上班是不可能的,这将影响多个行业,包括金融、广告、医疗保健和艺术。近两天城市的交通线路、桥梁、隧道都瘫痪了,在最新的报告中,地铁到下周可能会正常运作。

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • 南京:人才安居房可“先租后售”
  • Household substance abuse
  • 6月财新中国制造业PMI升至50.4 重回扩张区间
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

红木家具转战三四级城市 红木文化普及是关键

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 三线城市房价创6年来单月环比最大涨幅
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 广联达助力建筑企业钢筋细化管理
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

对于就读EMBA的创业者而言,学校和校友关系网的支持同样很重要。约四分之三的创业者认为,学校和校友网络在自己创办公司时都有帮助或非常有帮助。“校友的支持对创业构想的审查以及为公司找到合适的人脉非常关键”,一位学员说。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

一些最近发表的科学论文说,高空急流中这种持续较长的怪现象,由于全球变暖正在导致北极地区海洋中的冰迅速融化而变得更可能发生,但许多主要的科学家还没有被这种观点说服。
乔布斯在苹果平板电脑发布会上展示iPad,2010年1月,旧金山
但是以一种最好的方式。
Kristen Stewart definitely did some 'butt' kicking at the Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Awards 2013 on Saturday. The star strutted down the purple carpet in a dazzlingly deep blue and black top and tiny shorts that had a miniscule checkerboard pattern. Kristen was nominated for two awards at the live show - Favorite Movie Actress for The Twilight Saga: Breaking Dawn - Part 2 and Favorite Female Buttkicker for Snow White and the Huntsman.
Venezuela's government closed all crossings a year ago to crack down on smuggling along the 1378-mile (2219 kilometer) border. It complained that speculators were causing shortages by buying up subsidized food and gasoline in Venezuela and taking them to Colombia where they could be sold for far higher prices.
星期三,枪手在伊拉克首都绑架了18名土耳其工人。
在中国永久居留的外国人在投资、购房、受教育等方面享受中国公民同等待遇。
丝绸之路上的城市
Polls indicate that the Dutch election will be extremely tight. Mr Rutte’s centre-right VVD sits atop most polls, just 3 percentage points ahead of the PVV. Most polls show a large percentage of voters remain undecided.
例如,绕路或拒载的司机或面临最高2000元的罚款。

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

京东智能联手东易日盛发布“智慧家”战略

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 轮滑看起来有点像常规的单排轮滑鞋,不过轮滑的轮非常大,尺寸大小跟自行车车轮差不多,看起来像是溜冰鞋,滑雪板和自行车的合体。最近一家名字叫作战车溜冰的公司声称,他们已经有了一些独特的想法——战车轮滑。根据该公司所说,这种轮滑是"革命性的新轮滑产品"。这是一场改革吗?也许是吧,他们至少在改进设计。这是发明吗?不是的。第一双轮滑早在142年前就已存在 。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • *喜剧类最佳客串女演员:蒂娜?菲(Tina Fey)和艾米?波勒(Amy Poehler),《周六夜现场》(Saturday Night Live)
  • 挑战与机遇并存 家居怪象缘何起?
  • 14. “Grandma” (Paul Weitz)
  • 《中国智能马桶消费趋势白皮书》发布 近六成受访者支持国货
  • The regulator said that “faced with a complex and volatile market environment,” funds had realised gains of only Rmb294.5bn in the first half, a drop of 42.3 per cent.

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 一个月卖不出一件家具? 乐从家具前景不容乐观
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • The Cnzz.com report states that almost two-thirds of China's 338 million Web users are now online game players. The online game industry, which currently accounts for more than half of the total Internet economy, will see strong annual growth at a rate of 20% in future years, the report says.
  • All or most of the municipal government's departments will move, as the office buildings are scheduled to be completed that year.

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

工业4.0之下,会出现百亿级的家居企业吗?

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