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Psychosocial Environment

Common Stressors

Stress, much like beauty, is in the eye of the beholder. What is stressful for one person may not be for another. However, there are some events and environments which typically cause stress:1

  • Changes to family: marriage, pregnancy, death, divorce, a new child
  • Work environment: job change, job loss, promotion, work overload, conflict at work, business failure, employee strike
  • Living environment: new house, relocation to a new community, loss of a home, neighborhood crime
  • Physical environment or conditions: noise, pollution, traffic, violence, illness, disability, injury, pain, cold, heat, lack of sleep, hunger, malnutrition, natural disaster, unsafe surroundings, physical abuse or neglect
  • Economic environment: poverty, escalating bills, unanticipated expenses, theft
  • Social environment: isolation, family or peer demands, forced separation (such as from military service, prison, abandonment or conflict), grief, emotional abuse or neglect, legal entanglements, bullying, difficult roommates or neighbors

加拿大人:到了英国,你们恐怕会一次又一次地被人误认为是美国人,还会因为那些和你们毫无关联的事情而备受指责。除非你能想出一种简便快速的办法,让人一眼就能看出你是加拿大人(在衣领上夹一朵花?穿马鞍鞋?戴枫叶图案的眼罩?)要不然你也就只能慢慢习惯,不再抱怨了。

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The kitchen addition, about 40 feet long, was designed to be in keeping with the original house, with intricate ceiling woodwork and several colored-glass panels by Century Studios, a Minneapolis company that secured its glass from the Chicago manufacturer used by Frank Lloyd Wright. Stainless-steel appliances include a five-foot-wide range and a Sub-Zero refrigerator. The dining area opens to a back patio through 10-foot-tall glass doors.
(复数)dealin
6.I’m 29. – Because 29 is like 20 years younger than 30.

The issues addressed in friends — relationships, careers, and friendship — continue to be relevant to today’s youth.
报告称,毕业生期望就业的三大行业依次为IT/互联网/通讯/电子、金融/银行/投资/基金/证券/保险、政府/公共事业/非盈利机构。
飞速变化的效应

Our psychosocial environment includes our responses to stressors in our lives, from temporary ones such as a traffic jam to major stressors such as war, homelessness or major disease. Our relationships with family members, friends, colleagues and other individuals and groups with whom we interact in our communities are an important part of this environment. These can impact our capacity to deal with stressors. Nurturing, supportive relationships allow us to better access all our innate resources to respond to stress in positive ways.2

family support

 

住建部曝光20家违法违规房企及中介

Kevin Durant
2. The new one childplus policy will substantially raise the birth rate, contributing up to 2million new children to the 2014 economy, a 15 percent one-year lift that willonly further boost consumer morale and spirit.
adj. 有毒的

Stress and the Body's Response

Our bodies, families, communities and lives are embedded in a complex network of systems. The degree of support in the environment can shape a person’s resilience. Likewise, an environment that is stressful can foster disease. The conditions of a person’s social and psychological environment—those in which they are born, grow, live, work and age—are known as the social determinants of health. These conditions are shaped by the distribution of money, power and resources at global, national and local levels.3

Risks for Stress: Riskscapes

A riskscape, or landscape of risks, captures the overlapping threats to health occurring in a physical location that increase risk for disease.4 An example of overlapping risks can be seen in impoverished neighborhoods,5 which often experience many of the stressors listed above simultaneously. We discuss poverty in more detail on our Socioeconomic Environment page.

Minority status, age and gender further interact to increase risk for disease.6 Individuals experience additional adversity when they live amid wealth and affluence but do not share those resources.7

Sweden
他说:“比如说,如果他们拖延从韩国进口的海关流程并采取对韩国商品的其他报复举措,韩国政府对此将无能为力。”
调查指出,关键的是,世界的不稳定性和冲突可能继续推动通货膨胀并影响某些城市的生活成本。

Stressful Environments and the Social Ecological Model of Health

The rise of chronic disease is a complex and growing problem for public health in the US.8 Stress, particularly exposure to long-term chronic stress, is associated with the majority of chronic health conditions.9

Social Ecological Model of Health

The Social Ecological Model of Health Promotion (SEM) describes how our psychosocial experiences are nested inside layers that influence health and well-being:10

  • individual
  • interpersonal (familial)
  • communal (neighborhood)
  • societal

The Human Stress Response System

This response system is evolutionarily old and has been shaped by the environmental experiences of thousands of preceding generations. Through millennia of adverse environmental challenges, adaptations and collective evolution, humans have developed a sophisticated stress response system.11

The physical stress response is a complex network of coordinated physical and behavioral activations from the endocrine and nervous systems:12

When a threat is perceived, the hypothalamus activates the sympathetic nervous system (the "fight or flight" response) by sending signals through the autonomic nerves to the adrenal glands. The adrenal glands pump the hormone epinephrine—also known as adrenaline—into the bloodstream, causing several physiological changes:13
  • 上述消息源还称,苹果将在明年10月发布一款12.9英寸的平板电脑,“目标消费群是北美的教育市场(和)……生产商是广达电脑(Quanta Computer)”。有报道称,三星也在研发尺寸在12至13英寸之间的平板电脑,而现在看来,“这些大尺寸平板电脑将极大地影响超极本需求”几乎是板上钉钉的事了。新款“iPad Max”,搭载整合了键盘和电池的新款外壳之后,实际上就是一台笔记本电脑,很有可能在高中生和大学生之中成为主流产品——这一人群需要比现有iPad和iPad Mini产品更好的内容创造工具。
  • 养老服务巨大缺口凸显 万亿级市场引资本竞逐
  • "I want to tell you what happened I opened the envelope and it said Emma Stone, La La Land and that is why I took such a long look at Faye and at you. I wasn't trying to be funny. This is Moonlight for best picture," Beatty told the shocked crowd as he explained the blunder.
  • 联手靓家居进军家装 东鹏控股欲转型大家居平台
  • 业内预测4月北京楼市成交将井喷 普遍看涨今年房价
  • 美国就业市场笼罩着重重阴云──特别是遭遇增税、减支双重打击的可能性,即“财政悬崖”。[qh]
    The first chart shows the total incidence of banking, currency and debt default crises in emerging markets since the 1970s, set against the nominal federal funds rate. Mr Koepke gives this as evidence that high and rising rates typically precede periods of EM crisis.

When the initial surge of epinephrine subsides, the hypothalamus activates the 千万房产测甲醛超标 业主诉开发商索赔46万, signaling the release of cortisol to keep the sympathetic nervous system engaged.

When the threat passes, the parasympathetic nervous system (the "rest and digest" function) calms the body and returns it to a pre-threat state.

PsychosocialHPA

Click to zoom

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The SEM is particularly useful in allowing researchers to study stressors from the micro scale (cellular) to the macro scale (social policy), positioning their work in the larger social ecological context.14 Layers are labeled with their corresponding social determinants of health.

PsychosocialSEMModelLWalker

我国新型建筑材料的发展趋势及应用

Policies that affect economic and social determinants (top level) can decrease access to income and education, and have powerful effects on neighborhood stressors.15

These policies shape disparities in local environments (second level)16 such as poverty, pollution, crime rates and political power.

Daily opportunities (third level) create or suppress nurturing environments and govern the frequency and intensity of daily hassles (discrimination and microaggressions).17

These layers affect our daily behaviors and patterns (fourth level) and daily interactions.

As these pressures funnel down from the political to the community to the individual, they become observational cues (fifth level) that the environment is threatening, unpredictable or uncontrollable and thus stressful.18

Upon activation, the brain sends signals to the body to mount a stress response.19

stressed child

飞利浦:把照明做到极致 新品开启了新的市场

Allostasis: The Body’s Stress Response

When the brain interprets a threat, it sends a cascading signal through the body that causes a stress response, known casually as "fight or flight" and more formally as an allostatic response.20 See The Human Stress Response System at right for more detail.

In healthy doses and supportive environments, this response is tempered and can foster learning.21 In adversarial environments the allostatic response can manifest as chest pain, heart palpitations, headaches, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), intestinal cramping, anxiety, panic, immobility, frustration, muscle tension and inflammation.22

These reactions can be exhausting and imprint a strong memory of fear on the brain.23 Fortunately, a feedback system in the brain is capable of stopping the stress response. 24 Terminating the stress response and restoring the body to pre-stress response states is important to protecting the body’s long-term health.25

Programming the Stress Response

When early-life experiences signal that the environment is unpredictable, threatening or uncontrollable, the stress response system may be reprogrammed, becoming blunted,26 or may be programmed to be sensitized and thus more responsive.

Responsivity is informed by the number of steroid receptors available during stress termination.27 The feedback system in the brain—cells in the hippocampus—have glucocorticoid receptors that, once filled, signal the termination of the stress response. When there are fewer glucocorticoid receptors in these cells, it takes a higher circulating quantity of cortisol to terminate the stress response.

The number of receptors available in the feedback system is dependent on how many proteins are produced in that cell. This is determined by the availability of the receptor gene to be transcribed into proteins. Stress signals, such as cortisol, circulating in maternal blood during pregnancy, can epigenetically alter the glucocorticoid receptor gene to be permanently downregulated, causing fewer receptor proteins to be produced.28

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How our bodies respond to stress varies across the population,29 determined by genetic predisposition30 and previous experiences including exposure to maternal stress signals before birth31 The typical responsivity can be modified by genetic predisposition32 but is generally neither amplified nor repressed.33 This neutral programming is optimal in moderately stressful environment where life is not overly threatening nor consistently safe. Over an individual’s life, neutral programming is optimal in balancing the risk for internal burnout from repetitive stress burden and survival in adverse environments long enough to maximize periods for mating and parenting.34

Chronic Stress and Disease: Weathering

With repeated exposure to stressors, the HPA axis activation is sustained, and stress signals continue to flood the body. This sustained activation delays the onset of restorative repair and pushes the body into pre-disease states.35 Chronic stress acts on the cardiovascular, metabolic, neuroendocrine and immune systems:36

  • 一份产业报告显示,随着国内手机制造商加快创新,国产品牌手机仍占据国内手机出货量的主要份额。
    Taken alongside data released in the past few days, and it doesn't make things easier. The country is still struggling with deflation and household spending slumped last month. But retail sales data released this morning topped estimates.
  • 7. Am I working too hard? Taking time to re-charge and spend time on activities that make you happy is so important. Honor your desire to pull back from work or school pressure when needed and give yourself time to breathe, even if it’s only for a few minutes at a time.
    调查指出,关键的是,世界的不稳定性和冲突可能继续推动通货膨胀并影响某些城市的生活成本。
    Lady Gaga以5.9千万位列第四,其后是5.45千万的碧昂斯。前者在统计期间演出了66场,也靠与范思哲和MAC的合约获得收入,同时还有她自己的黑色香水。后者与其老公Jay Z的On The Run巡回演唱会通过19天(北美日期),赚得了超过10千万,创造了能与滚石相比较的第一对音乐界夫妻档夜平均的神话。
    9.你会一直回避你的老板。
    这一数字也是自2011年以来的最高增长率。五年前,中国的总票房只有100亿元。

Over time, stress deteriorates health and resilience. This process is referred to as weathering.37 Just as a flag that weathers many storms begins to fray, so too does the body when it experiences harsh environments of social inequity.38 The health outcomes are mental illness, chronic disease morbidity and premature death.39 In short, stress causes physical changes that impact our health and functioning.

The frequency, duration, intensity, source, target and proximity of stressors influence the extent of the stress response. The duration of response can increase an individual’s risk for physical and mental burnout. Stressors that are higher intensity or longer duration carry a high internal burden (allostatic load).40 Over time this internal pressure forces body systems to adapt in ways that foster pre-disease states.41

In weathering, each body system adapts to this internal pressure through secondary changes:42

Dysregulation in these areas  can cause these secondary changes.43   With chronic stress, such changes increase the risk for these conditions:44
  • Cardiopulmonary system
  • Metabolism
  • Mental functioning
  • Autoimmune response
  • Aging
  • Increased startle response
  • Anxiety and vigilance
  • 内销家具按出口标准生产 潍坊首批26家企业公布
  • Glucose sensitivity
  • Immune suppression
  • 住建部:已完成今年棚改任务62.5% 棚改货币化安置不搞“一刀切”

Stress-induced Gene Expression

Physiologic shifts following stressful exposures occur in large part through hormone-activated gene expression.45 When cortisol is released by the adrenal glands into the blood stream, it targets glucocorticoid responsive genes in tissues distributed throughout the body,46 including the central nervous system, metabolism, immune, cardiovascular, endocrine and renal systems.47

Within each cell nucleus, the steroid hormone binds with its receptor, and this complex binds to a stretch of DNA called a hormone response element.48 This binding activates gene expression to shift the physiologic activity of the target cell. In this way, stressful experiences, mediated through the allostatic response, have an epigenetic effect on the body.

See our Gene-Environment Interaction page for further explanation.

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Through this process, chronic stress responses cause weathering on the body, eroding health status.49 As years turn into decades, the physiologic changes (such as hypertension, metabolic disorder or anxiety) may become irreversible, often increasing co-morbidities, potentially increasing maladaptive coping mechanisms (such as social aversion, drug and alcohol dependence) and decreasing life expectancy.50

Through these mechanisms social structures can get under the skin, alter our bodies and cause disease. The loss of productivity and financial burden of systemic disease further erodes family and community resilience, especially when the chronic stress starts in childhood.51

Disadvantaged Populations

Lower social classes experience longer durations of chronic stress, such as lengthy unemployment or institutionalized discrimination. Those with less power experience barriers to achievement of life goals, such as high costs of educational programs or lack of childcare options, inadequate recognition and rewards for personal qualification (such as gender pay differences) or for invested effort in the workplace. In the US and other White-majority countries, minorities and women in these environments are exposed to more chronic stressors than their White male counterparts due to differential expectations resulting in role strain and interpersonal conflict.52

Both the sources and frequency of stressors are not distributed equally in society, with heavier burdens borne by those with less advantage.53 These systems of inequity create differences in health outcomes, known as health disparities.54

Stressful Environments and the Developing Child

Stress Effects on Brain Development

Not a lot of Bond villains get their own theme song, but Christopher Lee's assassin from The Man with the Golden Gun gets a flashy, catchy, groovy tune that makes him seem cool as hell. (And of course, he is.) Lulu completely sells the awesomeness of the villain Scaramanga, and although the song may seem almost ridiculously upbeat today, it only adds to the charm.
The two extraordinary sex toys will go on display at an upcoming exhibition at the Asian Art Museum of San Francisco in the United States.
飞速变化的效应
The report shows that social media, and especially WeChat, has become more and more popular in the past year among people over the age of 40.
2. 大卫·维勒莱斯(David Virelles),《姆波克》(Mbókò),ECM。才华横溢的年轻钢琴手大卫·维勒莱斯继续着对非洲-古巴文化与仪式的深入研究,带着有条不紊的酷意与精神上的开放性。罗曼·迪亚兹(Román Díaz)担任打击乐手,这张迷人的组曲有着既古典又现代的深刻内涵。
5. Fred Hersch Trio “Floating” (Palmetto) The articulate grace of Fred Hersch’s current piano trio, with the bassist John Hébert and the drummer Eric McPherson, finds potent expression on an album structured like a nightclub set, with a few retooled standards mixed in with sturdy, emotionally transparent original songs.
This is the sixth edition of the QS World University Rankings by Subject, featuring a record-breaking 42 disciplines, making it the largest-ever ranking of the kind. The expert opinion of the world's top 76,798 academics and 44,426 employers informed the results, alongside the analysis of 28.5 million research papers and over 113 million citations sourced from the Scopus/Elsevier bibliometric database, said QS.

These exposures increased amygdala function, which enhances fear, anxiety, and emotional dysfunction, while it decreased prefrontal cortex function, which participates in regulating and terminating the stress response.55

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Our stress system responds to environmental conditions even before birth56 and is especially sensitive early in development.57 Glucocorticoid receptors are found in most fetal tissue and in the placenta, suggesting they are capable of responding to high maternal cortisol. Early-life experiences shape our stress response and therefore the impact stress has on our health over the life course.

A person’s individual responsiveness to stress signals can shape brain development.58 Highly responsive individuals demonstrate better learning and health outcomes in supportive environments and worse health outcomes in high adversity environments.59 Supportive environments foster better mental and social learning, increase memory and improve decision-making; in such environments, children have adequate time for stress response termination and are generally characterized by openness to information.

In negative environments, however, high responsivity magnifies the body’s response to intense or chronic stressors, increasing the risk for weathering over the life span. Highly responsive individuals can become hypersensitive to social feedback and psychological manipulation, both capable of detracting individuals from achieving goals.60 This increases the risk for future stressful experiences, further increasing the risk for weathering.

cycle of stress and performance

Stress responsivity shapes the intensity of weathering and has implications for later adult health outcomes.61 Responsivity biased toward either under- or over-reactivity can predispose children to adult disease.62 For example, overexposure to maternal stress hormones before birth can restrict birth weight and predispose the developing child to hypertension later in life.63 Effects of parental stress, such as reduced opportunities for bonding and distant parent-child relationships, significantly increase the risk up to fourfold for a child to experience anxiety, depression, diabetes and heart disease as an adult.64 Higher prenatal glucocorticoid exposure is directly associated with higher circulating glucocorticoids in adulthood, and both are associated with increased hypertension and hyperglycemia and changes in adult behaviors.65

Investigating Brain Changes

We rely heavily on animal models to understand early-life stress programming because sampling a core of living human brain is not an option. However, we do have direct human associations: the brains of suicide completers show epigenetic changes in the glucocorticoid receptor gene66 as well as methylation changes in other important genes that inform the intensity of the stress response.67

Newborns of mothers with depressive symptoms during pregnancy also demonstrated increased methylation of the GR gene in umbilical cord blood cells. As three-month-old infants, these children had higher levels of salivary cortisol.68

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Brain Changes

With exposure to chronic stress, the brain changes shape, reducing connections that support nuanced cognitive function, self-regulation and memory; this process is less reversible as a child ages. Through these changes, chronic stress increases the likelihood of aggression, vigilance and anxiety.69 Because an individual suffering from these changes and conditions is handicapped in becoming a nurturing parent (although many people do overcome adversity and become terrific parents), the effects of stress can be self-perpetuating down generations. Through stress biasing, the social determinants can become multigenerational stimulants of chronic disease.70

To the individual, there is a cost for high responsivity. Early life stressors that reshape the brain affect hippocampal and amygdala development that can affect a child’s transition into adolescence. Chronic early stress impacting social learning may predispose teens to depression and substance abuse, both feeding into adult chronic diseases.71 This is a vicious cycle of early childhood adversity. The stress that parents experience can have direct influences on a child’s biological capacity in responding to future stressful situations.72 The parent-child relationship, in utero and through development, provides experiential information that programs stress responsivity.

Telomere Changes

Telomeres are structures on the ends of chromosomes that protect and stabilize chromosomes. They are essential for avoiding cellular dysfunction. Telomere length is reduced with age, smoking and stress, and shorter telomeres can impair health.73

Telomere length in specific blood cells is viewed as a biomarker for cellular aging that is closely associated with age-related and chronic diseases.74 This biomarker may reflect population-level weathering in communities. For example, a study of nine-year-old boys found that adverse environments shaped by low income, low maternal education, unstable family structure and harsh parenting were associated with a 19 percent shortening of white blood cell telomeres as compared to a cohort in more nurturing environments. These boys physically aged faster than their chronical age would suggest. Children with the most sensitivity (highest responsivity) to stress showed the longest telomeres in advantaged environments and the shortest in disadvantaged environments.75

Resilience

Resilience, the capacity to recover quickly from difficulties, is a characteristic of both individuals and communities. Parental bonding is a resilience factor, protecting children from the adverse effects of poverty on emotional and cognitive development.76

Community resilience is difficult to define and measure; the US Department of Health & Human Services defines it as "the ability of a community to use its assets to strengthen public health and healthcare systems and to improve the community’s physical, behavioral, and social health to withstand, adapt to, and recover from adversity".77   A resilient community is one that is socially connected, takes collective action, and has access to necessary resources.

Substantial risks to community health and well-being lie within community adversities such as climate change, urbanization and disparities. In the context of a natural or manmade disaster, increasing community resilience includes better preparedness and disaster planning, promoting community systems, and reducing threats to health. These are some steps communities and public health can take to build resilience:78

  • One of the men even swoops in to give the girl a quick kiss on the cheek. He turns around in mock-embarrassment and gives his friend a hug, while the young woman speaks to her friend in French.
  • 京津冀协同发展下的燕郊尴尬:配套不全产业空心化
  • 蓝天在未来不会也不应该成为奢侈品。
    The reading represented a fall of 0.4 points from September and a sub-index on output for the gauge, which primarily tracks larger and state-owned enterprises, fell 1.3 points to 53.4. That for new orders dipped 1.9 points to 52.9.
  • 报告称2016年房价将再涨7% 地价涨10%
  • Build social connectedness

Interactions between Chronic Psychosocial Stress and Environmental Toxicants

Research shows impacts of combined stress and toxicants:79

  • v. 决定,决心,确定,测定
    在这月初这封信上写着的地址是宾夕法尼亚大学的某个邮箱。
  • 单词petroleum 联想记忆:
    Belgium
  • out出去.过时+rage怒气→怒气外露→粗暴,暴行
    补救办法:这种遗憾的棘手之处在于,它通常是后知后觉的。只有在你已经离开这个岗位并找到了更好的工作之后,你才会开始后悔为什么没有早点跳槽,即使这原本是不切实际的想法。你能做的就是找到使你留在这个岗位的理由,作为以后提醒自己的信号。另外,你还要通过各种途径使自己可以在机遇出现的时候能够快速抓住它,比如你可以按月或按季度重新审视自己并用新的成果来更新你的简历;同步更新在LinkedIn上的信息;准备应急资金以减轻你对当前工作的依赖;了解业内最新消息,以便知道自己可以在哪里大展拳脚。
  • 我们只把精力在应该关注的地方
    圣加伦大学校友的薪资排名第三,为114449美元(按购买力平价调整后),排在艾哈迈达巴德的印度管理学院(Indian Institute of Management)和印度管理学院班加罗尔分校(IIM Bangalore)之后,这两所商学院校友的平均薪资分别为116476美元和116094美元。圣加伦大学还在职业服务质量方面排名第一。
    And, men are 2.8 times more likely to use this obvious phrase than women.
  • 2. Staying too long in a job that you want to leave
    但同比而言,厦门涨幅为43.9%,排在第二位,仅落后于安徽省会合肥,后者为47.6%。65个城市同比上涨,5个城市同比下跌,这表明虽然房价可能不会像以前一样迅速攀升,但上涨仍然具有普遍性而且较有韧性。
  • Research in Southern California children found that living in a high-stress home is associated with more susceptibility to the negative effects of air pollution on the lungs.80  
  • In a study of children from birth to age seven, children who experienced high levels of air pollution in utero had lower IQ scores than those not exposed, but only when their mothers experienced material hardship.81

Selected Sources of Stress and Impacts on Health

Psychosocial risk factors for disease include family conflict, neighborhood violence, work stress and social discrimination; these factors can hinder mental and physical health.82

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Global Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence

Globally, most data available is on intimate partner violence and sexual assault against women. An estimated 35 percent of women worldwide have experienced intimate partner violence over their lifetimes. Violence rates range from 71 percent of all women in Ethiopia to 15 percent of all women in Japan. Worldwide, up to 38 percent of all murders of women are committed by their partners.83

Domestic and Intimate Partner Violence: United States

Domestic violence includes violence from spouses, partners, parents, children, siblings or relatives. Three-quarters of incidents occur against women.84 In fact, it is estimated that a US woman is assaulted or beaten every nine seconds.85

Types of Domestic Violence.86

  • Rape
  • Sexual assault
  • Robbery
  • Intimate partner assault

Most violence occurs around the home (77 percent),87 and 19 percent of all violent incidents include the use of a weapon.88

The 古镇带动超千亿元灯饰产业集群 占全国灯饰行业70%份额 shows that between 2003 and 2012, domestic violence accounted for 21 percent of all violent victimizations in the US, with 70 percent of those from intimate partner violence (IPV).89

graph of violent relationships

data from Truman and Morgan90

Preventing Violence in Relationships

Research in high-income areas indicates school-based programs can help prevent relationship violence among young people.91

Costs. Intimate partner violence accounted for $4 billion annually in 1995 in health care services and an additional $900 million in lost productivity.92 When these amounts are updated to 2003 figures, $8.3 billion in annual expenses are estimated, a combination of higher medical costs ($5.8 billion) and lost productivity ($2.5 billion).93

Health outcomes of intimate partner violence. In addition to death and injury (bruising, flesh wounds, fractures, brain injury and headaches), the cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, immune, and endocrine systems are impacted from violence-induced stress, as discussed above.

Health Consequences of Intimate Partner Violence94

Health conditions 

Asthma

Infections

Circulatory conditions

Cardiovascular disease

Fibromyalgia

Irritable bowel syndrome

Chronic pain

5月份40多城市共发布50次楼市调控政策

Gastrointestinal disorders

Joint disease

Migraines

Headaches 

Reproductive conditions

Gynecological disorders

Pelvic inflammatory disease

Sexual dysfunction

【干货】这些新政策与LED照明灯具企业息息相关

Delayed prenatal care
Preterm delivery

Low birth weight babies

Perinatal deaths

Unintended pregnancies

Psychological conditions

Anxiety

Depression

PTSD

Antisocial behavior

Suicidal behavior in females

Low self-esteem

Inability to trust

Fear of intimacy

Emotional detachment

Sleep disturbances

Flashbacks

Social impacts

Restricted access to services

改变人类生活的世界十大新型建筑材料

Isolation from social networks

Homelessness

Health behaviors

High-risk sexual behaviors

Harmful substance abuse

7月淘宝家装业销量数据惨淡 卫浴、照明各占半壁江山

Overuse of health services

Child Abuse and Neglect

The CDC provides some 2014 facts on child maltreatment (either abuse or neglect) in the US:95

  • 4)我来搞定它:你专心致志地听别人说话。然后你说,“轻松一点,别担心。我会亲自搞定它的。”这样的承诺会让所有人都放松下来。如果想要做出更大的承诺,你就可以说,“我向你保证。”这样的表态会让你看起来更可靠。在对方眼里,你已经进入角色,并且会尽一切努力去完成的。
  • The company realised that "it was all a mistake and that he did it without thinking," a Google spokeswoman said last Wednesday.
  • 两部门发布林木制品质量国家抽查结果

The CDC estimates total lifetime costs of child maltreatment at $124 billion annually.:96

Youth Violence

Any violence—including being a victim, offender or witness—in early childhood extending into young adulthood is considered youth violence. The US CDC provides some important US statistics to consider:97

  • The report said that technological innovations and balanced development were the keys to building "cities of opportunity".
  • In 2012, an average of 13 people ages 10 to 24 were victims of homicide and 1642 more were treated in emergency departments each day.
  • [s?:'vei]
    江苏、山东、浙江、河南和四川的经济总量排名紧随其后,名次与2015年相同。
    Some hits have gone so far over the top they should be winded, yet instead keep on puffing gusts of hot air, including “Downton Abbey,” “Scandal” and “Revenge.” A new addition on ABC, “How to Get Away With Murder” was a fun substitute, a lurid nighttime soap opera about lawbreaking defense lawyers — “Law & Disorder.”
  • The pace of Japanese production rose at a brisk clip during the month of October, giving policymakers hope - if not more mixed messages - about the strength of the Japanese economy.

Inspire strategies

World Health Organization with CDC and other global partners created INSPIRE, a technical package of seven evidence-based strategies to end violence against children. Click to open the Inspire infographic from the WHO website.

Risk factors for youth violence:98

  • A history of violence
  • Substance abuse
  • Delinquent behaviors
  • Poor family functioning
  • Poor grades in school
  • Community poverty

Adverse Childhood Experiences

PsychosocialCDCACEpyramid

graphic from the CDC;99 click to zoom

Adverse childhood experiences—ACEs—were first identified in the late 1990s. The risk for violence, victimization, and disease outcomes are heavily impacted by early childhood experiences. As shown at right, adverse childhood experiences can set children on an arduous path that increases risk for poor health behaviors, disease, disability, social problems and early death outcomes.100

  • Best Companies rank: 11
  • 广东省建材业供给侧结构性改革方案出台
  • Edward Luce

Examples of Adverse Childhood Experiences

Abuse

  • Emotional
  • Physical
  • Sexual

Household challenges

  • (受权发布)中共中央 国务院 印发《乡村振兴战略规划(2018-2022年)》(5)
  • Household substance abuse
  • 房抵贷进楼市成房价上涨帮凶 最多能贷一千万
  • Parental separation or divorce
  • Criminal household member

Neglect

  • Emotional
  • Physical

交叉检查促楼市平稳向好发展 多家知名房企被通报

  • Alcoholism / alcohol abuse
  • 门窗行业成本涨带来价格涨 是好是坏?
  • Depression
  • Fetal death
  • Illicit drug use
  • Ischemic heart disease
  • Liver disease
  • Financial stress
  • 房价上涨导致下游产业扩张提速 玻璃市场需求不断增加
  • Sexually transmitted diseases
  • Suicide attempts
  • Smoking
  • Adolescent pregnancy
  • Risk for sexual violence
  • Poor academic achievement

Neighborhood Violence

Living in a neighborhood that experiences high levels of violence can have a devastating impact on people’s long-term mental and physical health.  People who live in neighborhoods with high rates of violence suffer from trauma-related illnesses such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), at higher rates.101

child memorial in a poor neighborhood

萨姆·史密斯是一个风格多变的男人,他可以在奥蒂斯·雷丁、艾瑞莎·弗兰克林和雷·查尔斯以及像艾米·怀恩豪斯和阿黛尔这样的现代偶像的风格中随意转换。

Exposure to neighborhood violence is especially harmful for children—it has been shown to impair children’s cognitive abilities and academic performance, and potentially contribute to inattentive and compulsive behaviors.102

Other health outcomes are associated with negative characteristics of residential settings including fewer cancer screenings, cardiovascular disease, and the outcomes of violence discussed above. The risk or resilience of a community can directly affect the prevalence of child maltreatment.103

A 2015 review of national and international studies in urban areas found these associations. More research is needed in rural areas to understand if these factors are generalizable:104

  • In the US community unemployment rate, per capita income, poverty rate and educational status were associated with intimate partner violence.
  • Internationally, though lacking representation from Europe or the Middle East, intimate partner violence was associated with community norms, community attitudes towards women, women’s literacy, education, and murder rates. Women’s empowerment is also shown to be protective against IPV.
  • Households with higher proportions of children were also associated with an increased risk of IPV.
  • Community characteristics such as lower collective efficacy, social cohesion, higher perceived neighborhood disorder, and general social disorganization are associated with an increase of IPV. Although crime and violence rates themselves have mixed results with association to IPV, higher levels of perceived violence and worry about violence are associated with IPV.

Discrimination

Racism, sexism, and other forms of discrimination exert a negative influence on mental health in a variety of ways. While experiencing discrimination within a person’s community is deeply stressful in and of itself, discrimination can also place certain groups at a higher risk of other adversities (poverty, segregation, unemployment, violence), which can also negatively impact health. Systematic racism, for example, raises exposure of communities of color to social exclusion and economic adversity, thereby placing them at a higher risk of stress, anxiety and chronic disease.105

Work Stress

Many factors in a person’s workplace can have a negative impact on their mental well-being. Factors such as poor work satisfaction, high demand, low job security, harassment and work disorganization can all cause people to feel substantially stressed while on the job. A 2016 investigation found 43 percent of working adults said their job negatively affects their stress levels. Others said their job negatively affects their eating habits (28 percent), sleeping habits (27 percent) and weight (22 percent).106

Behavioral Responses to Stress

米其林(Michelin)、微软(Microsoft)、爱立信(Ericsson)等大企业的领导人已经把更多的决策权推向一线员工。随着这种方法的成功引起注意,其他企业将效仿。
The implosion of a giant subprime mortgage lender in 2007?The collapse of Lehman Brothers in 2008?
In my country, we make so much waste, we buy and throw away, buy and throw away, and yet northern countries will not share with the needy. Even when we have more than enough, we are afraid to lose some of our wealth, afraid to share. 在我的祖国,我们制造了如此之多的垃圾,我们购买商品,我们随之丢弃,买来,再丢弃。然而有些国家,有些人,却不会分享给那些真正需要的人们,甚至他们拥有的远远超过自身需要的时候。他们害怕分享,害怕失去自己的财富。
银行根本无力赶上这样的薪酬水平。例如,受交易结构性变化和旨在约束冒险行为的新规打击,自2009年以来高盛(Goldman Sachs)的净收入减少了约三分之一。该行试图让薪酬比保持稳定,这意味着发放给典型员工的总薪酬减少。
今年11月,我国网约车司机将须通过考试获得从业资格证。
瑞典就人道主义援助贡献基金而言,属于最慷慨的国家之一,整体排名第六。“公民权益”排名第二,“最佳绿色生活国家”排名第一。
8、邦德并不是个喜剧演员 但他懂得合适的时候来点小幽默。女性很容易被有趣的男人吸引,因为幽默标志着智慧。可以这么讲,一个人多有趣,可以来推断他与多少女人风流过。
9. 设身处地也能提高记忆力
To wish you joy at this holy season. Wishing every happiness will always be with you.
spoon

Stress and Addiction

substances often abused

 

广州或在全国率先推出租购同权

Stress a powerful risk factor for both developing an addiction and relapsing back into addiction.107 Stress affects the reward pathways of the brain, those same pathways involved in stress, in ways that make people especially prone to become addicted to substances such as nicotine, alcohol and drugs.108

Health-supporting Mechanisms

CDC offers healthy ways to cope with stress:109

  • Take a break, even a short one
  • Breathe deeply
  • Exercise
  • Visualize
  • Scan your body for tension
  • Talk to someone
  • Focus on the here and now
  • 如果法国总统奥朗德在2012年上任后没有主动减薪30%,他的排名还能更靠前。
  • Cut out the caffeine
  • Face the problem

What we know about stress and addiction:110

  • Once Upon A Time
  • 外媒:中国楼市还将恶化 或突然降价大甩卖
  • On Her Majesty's Secret Service gets an honorable mention on our list of James Bond Theme songs.
  • 贵州省质监局开展溶剂型木器涂料认证监督抽检
  • 他参照美国脱口秀节目主持人的话说:“我一直想和Jay Leno见面,”说这话之前他自己就笑了起来。达拉斯买家俱乐部明星Jared不以为然回应道:“对不起,你又叫什么名字?但观众们似乎意识到了两人之间尴尬的气氛,一位观众开玩笑说:“认为Jared Leto妄想Grinder看着他。”

One reason stress is a such a risk factor for substance abuse is that substance abuse can temporarily reduce anxiety caused by stressful events. As stress levels become chronic, the body responds with dysregulated hormonal states and stress-related behaviors that can produce anxiety. This predisposes an individual to seek substances that temporarily alleviate this stress-induced physical state. After the 9/11 terrorist event in the US, researchers noted a corresponding increase in the sales of various street drugs.111

Those who drink alcohol report that doing so makes them feel relaxed and less stressed. However, using alcohol as a coping mechanism for stress, especially on a regular basis, increases alcohol's harm to the body.

Stress and Antisocial or Violent Behavior

Stressors early in life are heavily associated with aggressive tendencies later in adulthood.112 Universally, childhood maltreatment is a risk factor for conduct disorders, antisocial personality symptoms, and becoming a violent offender. Research has found that abused boys experiencing erratic, coercive and punitive parenting were most at risk of antisocial behaviors later in adulthood, with the earlier the experience the more likely the negative behaviors were. Early child abuse doubles the risk a person will engage in criminal activities later in life.113

Environments That Break the Cycle of Violence114

  • Securing a stable environment
  • 27省上半年城乡居民收入出炉 距离买房还有多远
  • Psychotherapy
  • Promoting positive parenting
  • Hartz started Eventbrite, an online ticketing platform, with her now-husband Kevin in 2006. Since its founding, the company has raised $140 million from firms like Sequoia Capital and Tiger Global Management and reached $2 billion in gross ticket sales this September. Entrepreneurship forced Hartz to appreciate candid and collaborative conversations. "I had to learn how to ask for help," she says. "Everyone always thinks it's brave to go out alone, but I think it's even braver to put yourself out there in front of others, and to figure out how to work together."
  • 这里我得提一下小牛队的处境。你很难在11月就告诉你球队的球迷们球队希望尽失,而你的名人堂球员仍旧在球员名单上时这一动作难度就更大了。

This "cycle of violence" describes the association between experiencing violence during childhood and the increased risk of either becoming violent or being a victim of violence. Although the majority of maltreated do not grow up to abuse others, we do know that one in six maltreated children becomes a violent offender and one in eight sexually abused boys becomes a sex offender.115 Victims of childhood abuse are at an increased risk of abusing their own children. Researchers also have found that up to one in seven children who experienced maltreatment in childhood also experienced abuse by their spouse. Violent experiences can be collective (gang membership), self-directed (harming oneself) or interpersonal (by a parent or other).116


This page's content was created by Lorelei Walker, PhD, and Nancy Hepp, and last revised in September 2016.

CHE invites our partners to submit corrections and clarifications to this page. Please include links to research to support your submissions through the comment form on our Contact page.

上交所:PR津住宅今日下午交易出现异常波动 临时停牌

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